19 April 2016

Letter of Richard Dawkins to his 10 year old daughter

April 19, 2016

Before sharing his letter let me clearly state one thing to the readers. I am a Muslim and believe in Allah. Sharing the letter of Richard Dawkins doesn't mean that I am an Atheist. The core reason of sharing this letter is because, by days pass, people around the world are killed , massacred in thousands because of the different religious beliefs each sector has, and the worst part is there are several branches inside each religion which has their own way of justifying what they follow and criticize the other sect of the same religion. due to these reasons the world is seen with an eyes of whether he/she is a Christian /Muslim /Jew /Hindu /Sikh /Buddhist /Jain /Zoroastrian and etc.... rather than to see a him/her as a Human.
Planet Earth is only known planet for us which supports our living . If we continue fighting like this for next decades. I am sure no religious man would be needed to prove the Judgment day/ Doomsday. Because, we humans are already fueling it. Belief is all personal and don't try to spread it with the edge of swords or guns. Being cunning in proving your religion will result in more chaos. Look and research the matters before you deny it. The gist of Dawkins Letter is about three things  "‘tradition’, ‘authority’, and ‘revelation’."  These three characteristics are not just recommended in justifying religion but also to look after what ever you hear around you. Many have criticized his letter but I share it with my own views.

Note: Sharing this letter doesn't mean to hurt any Individual's religious beliefs. Its shared to develop a rational thinking among the readers.

The following is a letter that Richard Dawkins wrote to his daughter when she turned 10. Richard is one of the worlds most renowned scientists who is known for speaking out against the dangers of religion.

To my dearest daughter,

Now that you are ten, I want to write to you about something that is important to me. Have you ever wondered how we know the things that we know? How do we know, for instance, that the stars, which look like tiny pinpricks in the sky, are really huge balls of fire like the Sun and very far away? And how do we know that the Earth is a smaller ball whirling round one of those stars, the Sun?
The answer to these questions is ‘evidence’.

Sometimes evidence means actually seeing (or hearing, feeling, smelling….) that something is true. Astronauts have traveled far enough from the Earth to see with their own eyes that it is round. Sometimes our eyes need help. The ‘evening star’ looks like a bright twinkle in the sky but with a telescope you can see that it is a beautiful ball – the planet we call Venus. Something that you learn by direct seeing (or hearing or feeling…) is called an observation.

Often evidence isn’t just observation on its own, but observation always lies at the back of it. If there’s been a murder, often nobody (except the murderer and the dead person!) actually observed it. But detectives can gather together lots of other observations which may all point towards a particular suspect. If a person’s fingerprints match those found on a dagger, this is evidence that he touched it. It doesn’t prove that he did the murder, but it can help when it’s joined up with lots of other evidence. Sometimes a detective can think about a whole lot of observations and suddenly realize that they all fall into place and make sense if so-and-so did the murder.

Scientists – the specialists in discovering what is true about the world and the universe – often work like detectives. They make a guess (called a hypothesis) about what might be true. They then say to themselves: if that were really true, we ought to see so-and-so. This is called a prediction. For example, if the world is really round, we can predict that a traveler, going on and on in the same direction, should eventually find himself back where he started. When a doctor says that you have measles he doesn’t take one look at you and see measles. His first look gives him a hypothesis that you may have measles. Then he says to himself: if she really has measles, I ought to see… Then he runs through his list of predictions and tests them with his eyes (have you got spots?), his hands (is your forehead hot?), and his ears (does your chest wheeze in a measly way?). Only then does he make his decision and say, ‘I diagnose that the child has measles.’ Sometimes doctors need to do other tests like blood tests or X-rays, which help their eyes, hands and ears to make observations.

The way scientists use evidence to learn about the world is much cleverer and more complicated than I can say in a short letter. But now I want to move on from evidence, which is a good reason for believing something, and warn you against three bad reasons for believing anything. They are called ‘tradition’, ‘authority’, and ‘revelation’.

First, tradition. A few months ago, I went on television to have a discussion with about 50 children. These children were invited because they’d been brought up in lots of different religions. Some had been brought up as Christians, others as Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs. The man with the microphone went from child to child, asking them what they believed. What they said shows up exactly what I mean by ‘tradition’. Their beliefs turned out to have no connection with evidence. They just trotted out the beliefs of their parents and grandparents, which, in turn, were not based upon evidence either. They said things like, ‘We Hindus believe so and so.’ ‘We Muslims believe such and such.’ ‘We Christians believe something else.’ Of course, since they all believed different things, they couldn’t all be right. The man with the microphone seemed to think this quite proper, and he didn’t even try to get them to argue out their differences with each other. But that isn’t the point I want to make. I simply want to ask where their beliefs came from. They came from tradition. Tradition means beliefs handed down from grandparent to parent to child, and so on. Or from books handed down through the centuries. Traditional beliefs often start from almost nothing; perhaps somebody just makes them up originally, like the stories about Thor and Zeus. But after they’ve been handed down over some centuries, the mere fact that they are so old makes them seem special. People believe things simply because people have believed the same thing over centuries. That’s tradition.

The trouble with tradition is that, no matter how long ago a story was made up, it is still exactly as true or untrue as the original story was. If you make up a story that isn’t true, handing it down over any number of centuries doesn’t make it any truer!

Most people in England have been baptized into the Church of England, but this is only one of many branches of the Christian religion. There are other branches such as the Russian Orthodox, the Roman Catholic and the Methodist churches. They all believe different things. The Jewish religion and the Muslim religion are a bit more different still; and there are different kinds of Jews and of Muslims. People who believe even slightly different things from each other often go to war over their disagreements. So you might think that they must have some pretty good reasons – evidence – for believing what they believe. But actually their different beliefs are entirely due to different traditions.

Let’s talk about one particular tradition. Roman Catholics believe that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was so special that she didn’t die but was lifted bodily into Heaven. Other Christian traditions disagree, saying that Mary did die like anybody else. These other religions don’t talk about her much and, unlike Roman Catholics, they don’t call her the ‘Queen of Heaven’. The tradition that Mary’s body was lifted into Heaven is not a very old one. The Bible says nothing about how or when she died; in fact the poor woman is scarcely mentioned in the Bible at all. The belief that her body was lifted into Heaven wasn’t invented until about six centuries after Jesus’s time. At first it was just made up, in the same way as any story like Snow White was made up. But, over the centuries, it grew into a tradition and people started to take it seriously simply because the story had been handed down over so many generations. The older the tradition became, the more people took it seriously. It finally was written down as an official Roman Catholic belief only very recently, in 1950. But the story was no more true in 1950 than it was when it was first invented 600 years after Mary’s death.

I’ll come back to tradition at the end of my letter, and look at it in another way. But first I must deal with the two other bad reasons for believing in anything: authority and revelation.

Authority, as a reason for believing something, means believing it because you are told to believe it by somebody important. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope is the most important person, and people believe he must be right just because he is the Pope. In one branch of the Muslim religion, the important people are old men with beards called Ayatollahs. Lots of young Muslims are prepared to commit murder, purely because the Ayatollahs in a faraway country tell them to.

When I say that it was only in 1950 that Roman Catholics were finally told that they had to believe that Mary’s body shot off to Heaven, what I mean is that in 1950 the Pope told people that they had to believe it. That was it. The Pope said it was true, so it had to be true! Now, probably some of the things that Pope said in his life were true and some were not true. There is no good reason why, just because he was the Pope, you should believe everything he said, any more than you believe everything that lots of other people say. The present Pope has ordered his followers not to limit the number of babies they have. If people follow his authority as slavishly as he would wish, the results could be terrible famines, diseases and wars, caused by overcrowding.

Of course, even in science, sometimes we haven’t seen the evidence ourselves and we have to take somebody else’s word for it. I haven’t with my own eyes, seen the evidence that light travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per second. Instead, I believe books that tell me the speed of light. This looks like ‘authority’. But actually it is much better than authority because the people who wrote the books have seen the evidence and anyone is free to look carefully at the evidence whenever they want. That is very comforting. But not even the priests claim that there is any evidence for their story about Mary’s body zooming off to Heaven.

The third kind of bad reason for believing anything is called ‘revelation’. If you had asked the Pope in 1950 how he knew that Mary’s body disappeared into Heaven, he would probably have said that it had been ‘revealed’ to him. He shut himself in his room and prayed for guidance. He thought and thought, all by himself, and he became more and more sure inside himself. When religious people just have a feeling inside themselves that something must be true, even though there is no evidence that it is true, they call their feeling ‘revelation’. It isn’t only popes who claim to have revelations. Lots of religious people do. It is one of their main reasons for believing the things that they do believe. But is it a good reason?

Suppose I told you that your dog was dead. You’d be very upset, and you’d probably say, ‘Are you sure? How do you know? How did it happen?’ Now suppose I answered: ‘I don’t actually know that Pepe is dead. I have no evidence. I just have this funny feeling deep inside me that he is dead.’ You’d be pretty cross with me for scaring you, because you’d know that an inside ‘feeling’ on its own is not a good reason for believing that a whippet is dead. You need evidence. We all have inside feelings from time to time, and sometimes they turn out to be right and sometimes they don’t. Anyway, different people have opposite feelings, so how are we to decide whose feeling is right? The only way to be sure that a dog is dead is to see him dead, or hear that his heart has stopped; or be told by somebody who has seen or heard some real evidence that he is dead.

People sometimes say that you must believe in feelings deep inside, otherwise you’d never be confident of things like ‘My wife loves me’.
But this is a bad argument. There can be plenty of evidence that somebody loves you. All through the day when you are with somebody who loves you, you see and hear lots of little tidbits of evidence, and they all add up. It isn’t purely inside feeling, like the feeling that priests call revelation. There are outside things to back up the inside feeling: looks in the eye, tender notes in the voice, little favors and kindnesses; this is all real evidence.

Sometimes people have a strong inside feeling that somebody loves them when it is not based upon any evidence, and then they are likely to be completely wrong. There are people with a strong inside feeling that a famous film star loves them, when really the film star hasn’t even met them. People like that are ill in their minds. Inside feelings must be backed up by evidence, otherwise you just can’t trust them.

Inside feelings are valuable in science too, but only for giving you ideas that you later test by looking for evidence. A scientist can have a ‘hunch’ about an idea that just ‘feels’ right. In itself, this is not a good reason for believing something. But it can be a good reason for spending some time doing a particular experiment, or looking in a particular way for evidence. Scientists use inside feelings all the time to get ideas. But they are not worth anything until they are supported by evidence.

I promised that I’d come back to tradition, and look at it in another way. I want to try to explain why tradition is so important to us. All animals are built (by the process called evolution) to survive in the normal place in which their kind live. Lions are built to be good at surviving on the plains of Africa. Crayfish are built to be good at surviving in fresh water, while lobsters are built to be good at surviving in the salt sea. People are animals too, and we are built to be good at surviving in a world full of … other people. Most of us don’t hunt for our own food like lions or lobsters, we buy it from other people who have bought it from yet other people. We ‘swim’ through a ‘sea of people’. Just as a fish needs gills to survive in water, people need brains that make them able to deal with other people. Just as the sea is full of salt water, the sea of people is full of difficult things to learn. Like language.

You speak English but your friend speaks German. You each speak the language that fits you to ‘swim about’ in your own separate ‘people sea’. Language is passed down by tradition. There is no other way. In England, Pepe is a dog. In Germany he is ein Hund. Neither of these words is more correct, or more truer than the other. Both are simply handed down. In order to be good at ‘swimming about in their people sea’, children have to learn the language of their own country, and lots of other things about their own people; and this means that they have to absorb, like blotting paper, an enormous amount of traditional information. (Remember that traditional information just means things that are handed down from grandparents to parents to children.) The child’s brain has to be a sucker for traditional information. And the child can’t be expected to sort out good and useful traditional information, like the words of a language, from bad or silly traditional information, like believing in witches and devils and ever-living virgins.

It’s a pity, but it can’t help being the case, that because children have to be suckers for traditional information, they are likely to believe anything the grown-ups tell them, whether true or false, right or wrong. Lots of what grown-ups tell them is true and based on evidence or at least sensible. But if some of it is false, silly or even wicked, there is nothing to stop the children believing that too. Now, when the children grow up, what do they do? Well, of course, they tell it to the next generation of children. So, once something gets itself strongly believed – even if its completely untrue and there never was any reason to believe it in the first place – it can go on forever.
Could this be what happened with religions? Belief that there is a god or gods, belief in Heaven, belief that Mary never died, belief that Jesus never had a human father, belief that prayers are answered, belief that wine turns into blood – not one of these beliefs is backed up by any good evidence. Yet millions of people believe them. Perhaps this is because they were told to believe them when they were young enough to believe anything.

Millions of other people believe quite different things, because they were told different things when they were children. Muslim children are told different things from Christian children, and both grow up utterly convinced that they are right and the others are wrong. Even within Christians, Roman Catholics believe different things from Church of England people or Episcopalians, Shakers or Quakers, Mormons or Holy Rollers, and all are utterly convinced that they are right and the others are wrong. They believe different things for exactly the same kind of reason as you speak English and someone speaks German.

Both languages are, in their own country, the right language to speak. But it can’t be true that different religions are right in their own countries, because different religions claim that opposite things are true. Mary can’t be alive in the Catholic Republic but dead in Protestant Northern Ireland.

What can we do about all this? It is not easy for you to do anything, because you are only ten. But you could try this. Next time somebody tells you something that sounds important, think to yourself: ‘Is this the kind of thing that people probably know because of evidence? Or is it the kind of thing that people only believe because of tradition, authority or revelation?’ And, next time somebody tells you that something is true, why not say to them: ‘What kind of evidence is there for that?’ And if they can’t give you a good answer, I hope you’ll think very carefully before you believe a word they say.

Your loving,


Leave your queries in the comment section and Subscribe to I'm Sulthan by Email for more interesting updates.Share with your friends.  Thank you.

18 April 2016

What is an Academic database? What is review of literature?

April 18, 2016

review of literature is a process of evaluating the information found in the literature(past studies) related to your selected area of study. All works included in the review must be read, evaluated and analysed, but relationships between the literature must also be identified and articulated, in relation to your field of research. As a process of review of literature, a literature review report is written with the purpose to convey the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. The literature review should provide a context for the research, justify the research, ensure the research hasn't been done before, show where the research fits into the existing body of knowledge, enable the researcher to learn from previous theory on the subject, illustrate how the subject has been studied previously, highlight flaws in previous research, outline gaps in previous research, show that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field and help refine, refocus or even change the topic. To do this process we need to go through the published articles. Finding and searching the past studies in each journal is almost a impossible task and this where academic databases play a vital role.

An Academic databases (sometimes referred to as abstracting and indexing databases) will find articles from thousands of journals. Search by your keyword to generate a list of results. Using them will save you time and effort compared to searching individual journals and will give you a comprehensive set of journal articles. I recommend you to use these academic databases rather than Search engines (Google)  or Encyclopedia (Wikipedia) because the information included in the databases is of high academic quality.

List of frequently used Multidisciplinary Academic database:

Apart from the above mentioned multidisciplinary databases there are several specific database for specific disciplines and its branches.

If you need any help or clarifications feel free to drop your queries at comments. 

15 April 2016

Shocking Top 14 foods that might be causing cancer

April 15, 2016
Image by PDPics via Pixbay
Last year over 1.5 million people were diagnosed with cancer. But few people stop to think about if the foods they are eating contain deadly carcinogens or are harming them in a way that might cause cancer. We all eat. Is what you are eating killing you?
1. Highly Processed White Flours
After refining, processed white flours not only lose most all of their nutrients but they are also bleached with a chemical called chlorine gas. The EPA sites this gas as dangerous, irritant, that can be lethal. It is also very highly glycemic and bad for your blood sugar. Not only are they making us fat they might also be contributing to rising cancer rates.
2. Microwave Popcorn
Everybody loves a yummy bag of popcorn. Making it in the microwave is easy and convenient. Unfortunately, according to wikipedia the bags of microwave popcorn are lined with perfluorooctanoic acid ( PFOA). This chemical is also found in Teflon. Studies have shown that this chemical can be linked with infertility in women and exposure significantly increases risk of kidney, bladder, liver, pancreas and testicular cancers. Find more out at cancer.org.
Many microwave popcorns also still use diacetyl which Conagra stopped using due to employees using it getting lung cancer.
3. Artifical Sweeteners
If you have to avoid sugar, are on a diet or have diabetes you might be using artificial sweeteners. However, many studies show that people usually GAIN weight when using them and can make it harder to control blood sugar. More studies are coming out that show aspertame, when broken down becomes a dealdy toxin called DKP. This breakdown of chemicals is known to cause certain brain tumors.
4. Alcohol
Many of us enjoy a nice drink now and then but over consumption of alcohol can lead to many health issues including diabetes, obesity and many types of cancers.   A recent study showed that postmenopausal women who drank one drink per day or less had a 30% increase in breast cancer rates than women who did not drink at all. Alchohol is the 2nd leading cause of cancer following tobacco. Experts working with the World Health Organization Research on Cancer found evidence that alcohol is the main cause of mouth, esophagus, liver, colon, mouth, rectum, and female breast cancers.
5. Refined Sugars and Soda Pop
 Many believe that refined sugars are the preferable food for cancer cells which helps them grow. High Fructose Corn Syrup being one of the main culprits because it is most easily metabolized by cancer cells. This puts most cakes, sodas, sauces, juices, etc on the NO NO list.. Sorry sweet tooths! 
6. Processed Meats
Like some hot dogs, sausages, bacon and lunch meats? Most of them have excessive salts and chemicals. Some studies show that people who regularly eat processed meats increased their chance of early death by as much as 43%. Sodium Nitrates are the biggest offenders and also a well know carcinogen with smoked meats being particularly bad.
7. Smoked, Pickled and Salted!
Put a fork in me after I eat these foods. These foods often have nitrates that turn into N-nitroso that is associated with higher cancer risks when digested.   Smoked meats that are high in fat can help lead to stomach and colorectal cancer.  
8. Potato Chips
They sure make a great tasting quick snack but the negative effects far outweigh the short term pleasure. High in both fat and calories the cause weight gain. Add in often high Trans-Fats with sodium and you have the recipe for cancer and heart disease related health problems.  
9. Farmed Salmon
Over 60% of salmon eaten in the United States is farm raised. Being fed unatural diets with chemicals, antibiotics, pesticides and other known carcinogens these otherwise healthy fish and not very healthy at all. Studies have also shown high numbers of PCB’s and mercury in them.  
10. Diet Foods
 Often loaded with Aspertame, a chemical in artificial sweeteners, diet foods are not very healthy at all. Excessive sodium, colors and refined ingredients are often added to make up for flavor loss. Many low fat foods actually have many MORE calories than their ‘Non diet’ associates.  
11. GMO’s
 While the jury is still out on what GMO’s are. Where they are in our food and what effect they have on the environment and our bodies one thing is for sure. The U.S. has NO testing procedures for GMO’s whatsoever. We are essentially guinea pigs in a huge trial.  
12.  Hydrogenated Oils
These are vegetable oils. They must be chemically removed from their source and are often deodorized and colored. Also, excessive Omega-6 fatty acids cause health problems.  
13. Red Meat
Small amounts of red meat in a diet can be shown to be a good thing. Try to eat grass fed which has properties of linoleic acid which helps fight against some cancers. However, when speaking about colon cancer, red meats eaten everyday can lead to increased cancer risks. 
14. Canned Tomatoes
Many canned foods and obviously found in cans. Most cans are lined with a chemical called bisphenol-A or BPA. Study about 2 years ago showed that BPA’s affect the way genes worked inside rats’ brains. The FDA seems to agree this is a problem and is supporting efforts to reduce, replace or eliminate the amounts found in canned foods.   The high acidity leaves tomatoes more dangerous because they can leech the BPA more readily from the can lining.

Leave your queries in the comment section and Subscribe to I'm Sulthan by Email for more interesting updates.Share with your friends.  Thank you.

12 April 2016

Published paper at SCMS journal of Indian management about Effects of Foreign Institutional Investment in BSE

April 12, 2016
Published a paper entitled  Modelling Effects of Foreign Institutional Investment in BSE in estemeed SCMS Journal of Indian management. The full paper can be downloaded here: Click here

Abstract of the paper: Foreign institutional investors have gained a significant role in Indian capital markets. Availability of foreign capital depends on many firm specific factors other than economic development of the country. In this context this paper examines the dynamic interaction between FII flows and stock market returns in Indian stock market. The data in this study consists of the monthly log return of major industries in BSE from January 2000 to July 2014. Stock return volatility is examined using the GARCH model with changes of variance during the period of 2000 - 2014. The analysis is conducted based on two sub-sample periods namely: period-1 (January 2000 to May 2006), period-2 (June 2006- July 2014). Augmented Dickey Fuller test is used to find the presence of random walk in returns of industries.

10 April 2016

Know your Polling Station and more - Indian Assembly election 2016 (Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Puducherry)

April 10, 2016
The Election Commission announced the schedule for Assembly polls in 4 States and 1 Union territory(Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala and Puducherry). The elections will be held between April 4 and May 16. The counting of votes on all seats in five states will take place on May 19.
Date of Poll (Phase -1)
West Bengal
4. Apr. 2016 (MON) and 11. Apr. 2016 (MON)
17. Apr. 2016 (SUN)
21. Apr. 2016 (THU)
25. Apr. 2016 (MON)
30. Apr. 2016 (SAT)
5. May. 2016 (THU)
4. Apr. 2016 (MON)
11. Apr. 2016 (MON)
16. May. 2016 (MON)
Tamil Nadu
16. May. 2016 (MON)
16. May. 2016 (MON)
Counting of Votes
19. May. 2016
19. May. 2016
19. May. 2016
19. May. 2016
19. May. 2016
19. May. 2016
source: http://www.elections.in/upcoming-elections-in-india.html

To know your polling station and/or to Apply for shifting to a different Assembly Constituency, Apply for shifting to a different Assembly Constituency (Only for overseas elector), Raise an objection for inclusion of this entry or Apply for deletion from electoral roll, Apply for corrections in electoral roll entry, Apply for shifting within Assembly Constituency use the following steps:

  1. Go to http://electoralsearch.in/ There you can see two tabs Search by details and Search EPIC no.
  2. I prefer using Search by EPIC no. In that tab enter your EPIC number found in Voter's id which is a 10 digit number. select your state and enter the captcha. 
  3. click search

Now you will see the below results after search. Click on view details.
click on image to enlarge

You may now see more details you required. As shown in the picture below.
click on image to enlarge

Remember it's your Right to vote don't make it as an assignment by selling it for any amount.
Wish you all the best.

09 April 2016

Creating a table in LaTeX - a simple way

April 09, 2016
LaTeX is popularly used in publications. its is a programming based software and hard for the beginners to understands. Specially when you are working with tables, Graphs and Mathematical equations it need some pratice. I this tutorial i explain you a simple way to create a table without entering a command in LaTeX

08 April 2016

Dependent, Independent variables and their different names

April 08, 2016
In research, variables of different nature are used. Two major variables used in such case is Independent and Dependent variables.

Independent variables:

A variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another is called as Independent variables. Other names for Independent variables are exogenous variable, predictor variable, regressor, controlled variable, manipulated variable, explanatory variable, exposure variable (in reliability theory), risk factor (in medical statistics), feature (in machine learning and pattern recognition) or an "input variable."

Dependent variables:

A variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another is known as Dependent variables. Other names for Dependent variables are Endogenous variable (similar not exactly the same as dependent variables), response variable, regressand, predicted variable, measured variable, explained variable, experimental variable, responding variable, outcome variable and output variable.

05 April 2016

HTTPS for blogspot- Coming in late April from Google

April 05, 2016

This morning received the above announcement from Google which states that all blog will be using HTTPS links soon. which could be seen late April but I got two doubt after the announcement.


Thats my first doubt, Will HTTPS links works with custom domain?. as I am using custom domain I will waiting for this answer.

2. I have read recently that google is migrating its blog from blogspot.com to googleblog.com so which will happen first HTTPS://name.blogspot.com or HTTPS://name.googleblog.com?

Waiting for these two questions

How your money grows owning a Share? Money from Plant to Tree

April 05, 2016

Investing in shares is an alternative way to increase your wealth apart from other investments made in Gold, Real estate and etc.. Risks are evenly high in Stock market because of crashes (as we saw in the global financial crisis of 2008–2009), but if you’re patient, have assessed your risk carefully and have a diversified portfolio that performs well, your money plant will grow in to a tree. So what do you get owning a stock? Proud ownership of a company and you have an ownership stake in the corporation that issued it, or offered it for sale. The size of that stake depends on the number of shares you own compared to the total number available. Now lets see what are the ways though which your money grows.


The company that issued the stock may pay a dividend which is a part of company’s profits. The company’s management may declare dividends either in between a financial year called interim dividends or at the end of the financial year called final dividends. However, it is not mandatory for the companies to pay dividends. It can use the profits for alternative uses like expansion. The decision to pay or not to pay dividends is taken at the annual meeting.


This is the main reason why people invest in shares. A stock's price may go up while you own it. If it does, you can sell some or all of your shares for a profit if you want to which is known as Capital gain, or you can hold onto it, which increases the value of your portfolio. Investing in stock has risks, though. You may have a negative return rather than a positive one. So you should properly access the risk of stock that you own. Remember, Shares need time to increase in value. With enough time and diversification (buying a range of shares spread across the economy), you’re unlikely to lose on the share market. If you’re impatient, and you’re not well diversified, you could lose money in shares.


A bonus issue is an offer of free additional shares to existing shareholders. These new ew shares are issued to shareholders in proportion to their holdings. For ex: the company may give one bonus share for every 10 shares held.


Shares are considered as assets and hence, banks accept shares as security for loans. Apart from that, Brokerage firms allow you to borrow money from their account based on the current shareholding you have in your demat account. If you see an opportunity in markets, but don’t have the cash right now, you can adopt this route.
That’s how your money grows and one important factor that investments in stocks are preferred over investments in real assets or solid asset is because of HIGH LIQUIDITY Shares are highly liquid. You can receive your cash in two days. It can be converted into cash in no time. With online trading, all it takes is the click of button to sell you holdings.  

One philosophy you should remember before making any investment is “High returns always carry high risk”. Its simple equation High risk = High return

03 April 2016

Why you should use Adjusted closing prices for Analysis

April 03, 2016

Beginners in analysis often do a basic mistake by considering the closing prices of stocks for analysis instead of Adjusted closing price. In this post I will explain, why you should use Adjusted closing price for any data analysis?
When you download data from internet you will often have a column Adjusted closing price in the file. You can read my post which explains how to download stock prices Method-1 and Method-2.
Closing price: It is the final price at which a security is traded on a selected trading day.

Adjusted closing price: It is a stock's closing price on any selected day of trading that has been amended to include any distributions (dividend) and corporate actions (Split/bonus shares) that occurred at any time prior to the next day's open.

From the above definition you can understand it could be a bias to use closing price for analysis which doesn’t discount the corporate actions or distributions. So it is always recommended to use Adj. Closing price during analysis.

02 April 2016

Step by Step tutorial to download Historical stock prices - Method 1 of 2

April 02, 2016
Historical stock prices are base for technical analysis of Stocks, Indices, ETF, currencies and etc.., Being a PhD scholar in Finance here I share you one of the two main methods of getting the stock prices in excel format. precisely the data will be downloaded in .csv format which is universally accepted in any data analysis software without any issues.

There are different website where you can get the data. For example, in case if you need historical stock prices you can find the data from the concern stock exchange websites which give you daily, weekly, monthly prices.such stock exchange websites are NSE ,BSE and many more. But in this tutorial I recommend using Yahoo finance website which is very handy in acquiring the data of companies listed in different stock exchanges around the globe. Yahoo finance do provide API for developers which can be useful in create simple VB based data downloading spreadsheet. Using the following steps you will be able to download the stock prices. Lets begin the tutorial for the question How to download the Stock prices.

Step-1 : go to http://finance.yahoo.com/ - Yahoo finance website

Step-2 : Now in the left hand side look for a column "quote lookup" as shown in the below image

Step-3 : Enter the name of the company for which you need the historical prices. as soon as you start typing 3 letters of the company the website will suggest you names. so no need to worry about not knowing the exact listed name. In the example you can see I am looking up for  Infosys stock and from the suggestion in drop down list box . there are three Infosys shares. IT depends on yo to choose on which exchange data you need. I am looking for NSE prices of Infosys . So select that and click Go

Step -4 : Now you can see the Infosys stock details in your screen. For obtaining historical prices. simply look for the historical prices column from left hand side. as shown in the image. and select it.

Step-5 : In the Historical prices page. You need to specify the date range that is from which date to which date you need historical prices. Lets say I am looking for daily prices from Jan 01 2015 to March 31 2016. you can opt for any option as you want it may be daily , weekly, monthly or you can see Dividend only option which will return you the dividend history for selected period of time. After entering the date click on "Get prices"

Step-6 : once you have clicked the get prices tab now you will see a table appearing for the selected period of time. now to get this in a excel sheet. Just go to the bottom of the table and you will find a option " Download to SpreadsheetClick on that and now you will see that the file is downloaded.

Now you can use the data for further analysis. Wish you all the best.

01 April 2016

Importance of Trees and Trichy's Heat

April 01, 2016

Trichy's Summer is very famous at least in Tamil Nadu. Easily the temperature in Summer reaches 40 degree Celsius.  So,today when I was riding my bike. I noticed a couple of thing that make me realize how the global warming is affecting humans.  When I was riding the bike its like I am in middle of some solar storm that my skin is feeling baked from sun's heat. during such a hot ride suddenly I feel a cool breeze touching my skin. I was like where the heck this breeze is from in middle of such a hot weather around me and I noticed the either side of the road is surrounded with crop fields. Which produced such cool breeze in a 40 degree heat. Immediately after crossing the fields again the solar storm is back and started baking me. after a little more ride again a cool breeze this time its bush and some trees in either part of the roads. So, that moment I realized the problem is not with summer but with the lack of trees . So, this time I entered the city area and the solar storm is now a super solar storm literally, it is because of the emissions from vehicles and other pollutants. remember this time it doesn't just hurt your skin outside but it started damage you from Inside too. Smog from these emissions are linked to a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms and illnesses. A number of studies have shown that pollutant exposures near major roadways are greater than for other areas in cities. Other studies have linked this increased exposure to an increased prevalence of a wide variety of illnesses including asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia and heart disease.
Apart from this one funny observation during the ride was surprising I see all the people waiting properly in bus stop for bus and people in shops are perfectly standing indie the shops it was like so much different city than the usual. then  I realized its all because of summer heat that they are afraid of and standing properly in the shelters. So the question raised in me was where from the breeze came and what really tress contribute to our atmosphere. So, here are some benefits of having a tree.

  • Trees absorb CO2, removing and storing the carbon while releasing the oxygen back into the air. In one year, an acre of mature trees absorbs the amount of CO2 produced when you drive your car 26,000 miles.
  • Trees absorb odors and pollutant gases (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and ozone) and filter particulates out of the air by trapping them on their leaves and bark.
  • In one year an acre of mature trees can provide enough oxygen for 18 people.
  • Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer. Trees reduce UV-B exposure by about 50 percent, thus providing protection.

The more trees we grow the more time we have to live in planet Earth! Think before cutting down every trees. Its simple We die when trees dies.