15 May 2018

Everything you need to know about Cauvery River and it’s Dispute (Part-1)

May 15, 2018
Everything you need to know about Cauvery River and it’s Dispute (Part-1)

Kaveri which is anglicized as Cauvery is the third largest river in South India after River Godavari and Krishna.

Geography around Cauvery

The River Cauvery originates at Talakaveri in Coorg District of Karnataka in Brahmagiri Range of hills located in the Western Ghats at an elevation of 1341 m. above mean sea level and drains a total area of 81,155 Sq.Kms. of which 34,273 Sq.Kms lies in Karnataka, 43856 Sq.Kms. in Tamilnadu, 2866 Sq.Kms. in Kerala and 160 Sq.Kms in Union Territory of Puducherry. The Cauvery basin is bounded by Tungabhadra sub-basin of Krishna basin on the Northern side and Palar basin on the Southern side. The Western Ghats form the Western boundary. The Nilgiris, an offshore of Western Ghats, extend Eastwards to the Eastern Ghats and divide the basin into two natural and political regions i.e., Karnataka plateau in the North and the Tamilnadu plateau in the South. In Tamilnadu, the Eastern part of the basin is in the elevation range of 0 to 150 m sloping gently up from the sea.
At Shivanasamudram, the river branches off into two parts and falls through a height of 91 m. in a series of falls and rapids. The falls at this point is utilised for power generation. The power station at Shivanasamudram was built as early as 1902. The two branches of the river join after the fall and flow through a wide gorge which is known as “Mekedatu”(Goats leap) and continues its journey to form the boundary between Karnataka and Tamilnadu States for a distance of 64 Kms. At Hogennekkal Falls, it takes Southernly direction and enters the Mettur Reservoir which was constructed in 1934. A tributary called Bhavani joins Cauvery on the Right bank about 45 Kms below Mettur Reservoir. Thereafter it takes Eastern course to enter the plains of Tamilnadu. Two more tributaries Noyil and Amaravathi join on the right bank and here the river widens with sandy bed and flows as “Akhanda Cauvery”.
Immediately after crossing Tiruchirapalli district, the river divides into two parts, the Northern branch being called “The Coleron” and Southern branch remains as Cauvery and from here the Cauvery Delta begins. After flowing for about 16 Kms, the two branches join again to form “Srirangam Island”. On the Cauvery branch lies the “Grand Anicut” said to have been constructed by a Chola King in 1st Century A.D. Below the Grand Anicut, the Cauvery branch splits into two, Cauvery and Vennar. These branches divide and sub-divide into small branches and form a network all over the delta.
The total length of the river from the origin to its outfall into the sea is 800 Kms. of which 320 Kms.is in Karnataka,416 Kms.in Tamilnadu and 64 Kms. forms the common border between the Karnataka and Tamilnadu states. The Cauvery basin is fan-shaped in Karnataka and leaf-shaped in Tamilnadu. The run-off does not drain off quickly because of its shape and therefore no fast raising floods occur in the basin.  The basin receives rainfall mainly from the S-W Monsoon and partially from N-E Monsoon in the Karnataka. The basin in Tamilnadu depends on the North-East Monsoon.

Soil Types and Cultivation

Physiographically, the basin can be divided into three parts – the Westen Ghats, the Plateau of Mysore and the Delta. The delta area is the most fertile tract in the basin. The principal soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils, laterites, alluvial soils, forest soils and mixed soils. Red soils occupy large areas in the basin. Alluvial soils are found in the delta areas. The culturable area of the basin is about 5.8 M. ha which is about 3% of the culturable area of the country.

Urban Centres and Industries around Basin

The city of Bangalore is situated just outside this basin. Important industries in the basin include cotton textile industry in Coimbatore and Mysore, cement factories in Coimbatore and Tiruchirappalli and industries based on mineral and metals. The Salem steel plant and many engineering industries in Coimbatore and Tiruchirappalli are also situated in this basin.


21 April 2018

Role of SEBI in the Development of Capital Markets

April 21, 2018
Role of SEBI in the Development of Capital Markets

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in India. It was established in 1988 and given statutory powers on 30th January 1992 through the SEBI Act, 1992. The headquarters is located at Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai, and has Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western Regional Offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Ahmadabad respectively. The following are the roles of SEBI:

SEBI and Investor Protection

SEBI has taken various steps to strengthen investor confidence and interest in the Secondary Market. This includes rationalisation and refinement of margin system such as mark to market margin, volatility margin etc.

SEBI and the Primary Market

SEBI has issued guidelines for all companies for disclosure of information and protection of investor’s interest. It is no longer necessary for companies to obtain prior permission for raising of capital from the market. For issues above Rs.100 Crore book building requirement has been introduced. Bankers to the Issue and portfolio managers have to be registered with SEBI.

SEBI and the Secondary Market

  1. The governing bodies of Stock Exchange have been recognised, restructured and broad-based.
  2. SEBI has drawn up a comprehensive plan of inspecting all Stock Exchanges to determine the extent of compliance with SEBI guidelines.
  3. Computerised screen based trading has been introduced on all major stock exchanges.
  4. All Stock Exchanges (SEs) have been directed to set up a clearing house or cleaning corporation. SEBI has accepted the Dave Committee recommendations on improving the working of OTCEI.
  5. The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) has been asked to reduce trading period from 14 days to 7 days for B group shares. The BSE has been allowed to introduce a revised Carry Forward System.
  6. Brokers, sub-brokers have been brought under the regulatory framework of SEBI.
  7. Penal action is taken by SEBI against any member for violation of SEBI Act.
  8. Registers to Issues and Share Transfer Agents have been brought under SEBI.
  9. Merchant Banking activity has been statutory brought under SEBI.
  10. SEBI has issued guidelines pertaining to buy-back of shares.

SEBI and Mutual Funds

All Mutual Funds have to be registered with the SEBI. UTI (Unit Trust of India) has also been brought under SEBI. SEBI has issued guidelines to provide for portfolio disclosure, standardisation of accounting policies, valuation norms for determining net asset value and pricing.

03 April 2018

Questionnaire for Service Quality of Hospitals – Download

April 03, 2018
Following questionnaire was proposed by Asghar Zarei et al. in 2012 on their study “Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients’ perspective”. Authors derived the questionnaire from famous SERQUAL Questionnaire of Parasuraman et al.
The questionnaire composed of 2 parts:
The first part includes 8 questions relating to the socio-demographic data of the patient.
The second part includes three dimensions of the service quality as follows:

Download in Word format

Download in PDF format 

Questionnaire for Service Quality of Hospitals

Socio-demographic Variables

Gender:          Male               Female
Age:               ≤ 30                 31-40               41-50               51-60               ≥ 61
Education level:         Illiterate          Primary and secondary school             Academic Degree
Residence:      Urban                         Rural
Hospital ward:           Internal            Surgery            Obstetrics and Gynaecology               Other
Health condition:                   Excellent         Good               Average           Bad

Service Quality Dimensions and items

Service Quality Dimensions and itemsStrongly Disagree
Neither Agree Nor Disagree
Strongly Agree
1. Sincere interest of personnel in solving patients’ problems
2. Carrying out of the services right at the first time
3. Providing services at appointed time
4. Error-free and fast retrieval of documents
5. Telling when services will be performed
6. Prompt performance of medical and non-medical services
7. Willingness of personnel to help patients
8. Attending of personnel whenever called
9. Instilling confidence in patients
10. Feeling safety and security in interaction with personnel
11. Polite and friendly dealing of personnel with patients
12. Knowledgeable personnel to answer patients’ questions
13. Individual attention to patients
14. Availability of 24-hour services
15. Attention to the patient’s beliefs and emotions
16. Having patients’ best interest at heart
17. Understanding specific needs of patients
18. Neat and well-dressed personnel
19. Clean and comfortable environment of the hospital
20. Modern and up-to-date equipment
21. Visually appeal of physical facilities
Zarei, A., Arab, M., Froushani, A. R., Rashidian, A., & Tabatabaei, S. M. G. (2012). Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients’ perspective. BMC health services research12(1), 31.

27 December 2017

History and how concept of accounting developed?

December 27, 2017

History and how concept of accounting developed?

Accounting has a remarkable heritage. The history of accounting is as old as civilization. The seeds of accounting were most likely first sown in Babylonia and Egypt around 4000 B.C. who recorded transactions of payment of wages and taxes on clay tablets.

Historical evidences reveal that Egyptians used some form of accounting for their treasuries where gold and other valuables were kept. The incharge of treasuries had to send day wise reports to their superiors known as Wazirs (the prime minister) and from there month wise reports were sent to kings. Babylonia, known as the city of commerce, used accounting for business to uncover losses taken place due to frauds and lack of efficiency.

In Greece, accounting was used for apportioning the revenues received among treasuries, maintaining total receipts, total payments and balance of government financial transactions. Romans used memorandum or daybook where in receipts and payments were recorded and wherefrom they were posted to ledgers on monthly basis. (700 B.C to 400 A.D).

China used sophisticated form of government accounting as early as 2000 B.C. Accounting practices in India could be traced back to a period when twenty three centuries ago, Kautilya, a minister in Chandragupta’s kingdom wrote a book named Arthashasthra, which also described how accounting records had to be maintained. Luca Pacioli’s, a Franciscan friar (merchant class), book Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportion at Proportionality (Review of Arithmetic and Geometric proportions) in Venice (1494) is considered as the first book on double entry bookkeeping.

Debit comes from the Italian debito, Credit comes from the Italian credito

A portion of this book contains knowledge of business and book-keeping. However, Pacioli did not claim that he was the inventor of double entry book-keeping but spread the knowledge of it. It shows that he probably relied on then–current book-keeping manuals as the basis for his masterpiece. In his book, he used the present day popular terms of accounting Debit (Dr.) and Credit (Cr.). These were the concepts used in Italian terminology. Debit comes from the Italian debito which comes from the Latin debita and debeo which means owed to the proprietor. Credit comes from the Italian credito which comes from the Latin ‘credo’ which means trust or belief (in the proprietor or owed by the proprietor. In explaining double entry system, Pacioli wrote that ‘All entries… have to be double entries, that is if you make one creditor, you must make some debtor’. He also stated that a merchants responsibility include to give glory to God in their enterprises, to be ethical in all business activities and to earn a profit. He discussed the details of memorandum, journal, ledger and specialised accounting procedures.

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25 December 2017

What is a Contract Note in Share trading?

December 25, 2017

What is a Contract Note in Share trading?

Contract Note is a confirmation of trades done on a particular day on behalf of the client by a trading member. It imposes a legally enforceable relationship between the client and the trading member with respect to purchase/sale and settlement of trades. It also helps to settle disputes/claims between the investor and the trading member. It is a prerequisite for filing a complaint or arbitration proceeding against the trading member in case of a dispute. A valid contract note should be in the prescribed form, contain the details of trades, stamped with requisite value and duly signed by the authorized signatory. Contract notes are kept in duplicate, the trading member and the client should keep one copy each. After verifying the details contained therein, the client keeps one copy and returns the second copy to the trading member duly acknowledged by him.

22 December 2017

What is a Stock Swap?

December 22, 2017

What is a Stock Swap?

First it is need to be known Who is an acquiree and acquirer.

Acquiree is the company that is being acquired or purchased in a merger or acquisition process.

Acquirer is the company that is purchasing another company in a process of merger or acquisition.

Acquiring a business or company may be paid in various forms, such as cash, securities or by taking over the liabilities of the acquiree. When the share-holders in the acquiree company are given shares of the acquirer company as part of the acquisition, it is called a stock swap.

A benefit of stock swap is that the cash outflow for the acquirer company is minimized. Higher the value of the acquirer company’s shares, the fewer the shares it needs to issue for the acquisition. However, the share issue does cause dilution of promoter’s stake in the acquirer company. Further, even earnings per share (EPS) of the acquirer company may be diluted, if the earnings of the acquiree company are not adequate.

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21 December 2017

Why do companies need to issue shares to the public?

December 21, 2017

Why do companies need to issue shares to the public?

Stock Markets are important financial hub in modern world. Thousands of companies are established through stock exchanges. But why companies issue shares and use stock market to raise money.

Most companies are usually started privately by their promoter(s). However, the promoters’ capital and the borrowings from banks and financial institutions may not be sufficient for setting up or running the business over a long term. So, companies invite the public to contribute towards the equity and issue shares to individual investors. The way to invite share capital from the public is through a ‘Public Issue’.

Simply stated, a public issue is an offer to the public to subscribe to the share capital of a company. Once this is done, the company allots shares to the applicants as per the prescribed rules and regulations laid down by SEBI.

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