27 September 2016

How to get help in R ? R–Tips

September 27, 2016
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R is very useful for data analysis but it surely need some programming skills. The one solid reason why analyst prefer r is its availability and flexibility with packages. The count of packages in CRAN is increasing day by day and it already consist of more than 4000 packages from Biometrics to Econometrics. Its really very hard to remember syntax and functions in packages. In this post I give you some important commands that could be very handy while working in R.

1. Using ?

If you want help on a function or a dataset that you know the name of, type ? followed by the name of the function. For example:
?mean opens the help page for the mean function
?"+"    opens the help page for addition
?"if"    opens the help page for if, used for branching code

2. Using ??

To find functions, type two question marks (??) followed by a keyword related to the problem to search. Special characters, reserved words, and multiword search terms need enclosing in double or single quotes. for example:
??plotting                    searches for topics containing words like "plotting"
??"regression model"    searches for topics containing phrases like this

3. help and help.search

The functions help and help.search do the same things as ? and ??, respectively, but with these you always need to enclose your arguments in quotes. The following commands are equivalent to the previous examples:help("mean")
help("+")
help("if")
help.search("plotting")
help.search("regression model")

4. example and demo functions

Most functions have examples that you can run to get a better idea of how they work. Use the example function to run these. There are also some longer demonstrations of concepts that are accessible with the demo function:
example(plot)
demo()                    #list all demonstrations
demo(Japanese)

5. vignettes

R is splits into package, some of which contain vignettes, which are short documents on how to use the packages. You can browse all the vignettes on your machine using browseVignettes :
browseVignettes()
You can also access a specific vignette using the vignette function (but if your memory is as bad as mine, using browseVignettes combined with a page search is easier than trying to remember the name of a vignette and which package it’s in):
vignette("Sweave", package = "utils")

6. RSiteSearch

The help search operator ?? and browseVignettes will only find things in packages
that you have installed on your machine. If you want to look in any package, you can use RSiteSearch, which runs a query at
http://search.r-project.org. Multiword terms need to be wrapped in braces:
RSiteSearch("{Clustering}")
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26 September 2016

Facts about infinity–What is Infinity?

September 26, 2016
Image by skitterphoto via pixabay
What if I say Infinity is simple to understand ? Will you agree?. Well, Here I give you some facts about Infinity to better understand it. After this you can accept that infinity is really simple. don't forget to subscribe my blog.
  • Ancient cultures had various ideas about the nature of infinity. The ancient Indians and Greeks did not define infinity in precise formalism as does modern mathematics, and instead approached infinity as a philosophical concept.
  • Infinity, is not big, it's not huge, it's not tremendously large, or it's neither extremely humongously enormous. It is Endless!
  • If there is no reason something should stop, then it is infinite.
  • Infinity is not a real number, it is an idea. An idea of something without an end.
  • Infinity itself, symbolized by a figure that resembles a sideways 8, is not a number. You could write it in the format of an infinite number, such as a 1 followed by an infinite number of zeroes. This, however, is a concept, not a number.
  • Here comes a beautiful fact, Negative infinity is less than any Real number,
    and Infinity is greater than any Real number.
These are just common facts about infinity for simple understanding. In advanced discussions, such as Theoretical applications of physical infinity , Cosmology and etc.., infinity is dealt in complex manner which is not a simple concept. Unless a care is exercised, especially when dealing infinity as a common number, paradoxes arise readily.
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21 September 2016

10 Inspirational quote that can change your life

September 21, 2016

1.Never give up on…….

1

2. When you feel…..

2

3.A champion is  ……

3

4. Life is 10% what ……

4

5. Even if you’re……

5

6.The journey of …..

9

7. The difference between …..

25

8. Though no one …..

121

9. Life has two rules …..

211

10. The best revenge…..

215

11.Bonus one and My favourite: KEEP FIGHTING

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18 September 2016

List of Greek alphabets, name ,Pronunciation and its English equivalent

September 18, 2016
greek_letters iamsulthan.in
The Greek alphabets have been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. Here is a list of alphabets, its name , How it is pronounced and What is its English equivalent that is used in Maths and statistics. Don't forget to subscribe the blog for more interesting updates.
Upper Case Lower Case Greek Letter Name English Equivalent Pronunciation
Α α Alpha a al-fa
Β β Beta b be-ta
Γ γ Gamma g ga-ma
Δ δ Delta d del-ta
Ε ε Epsilon e ep-si-lon
Ζ ζ Zeta z ze-ta
Η η Eta h eh-ta
Θ θ Theta th te-ta
Ι ι Iota i io-ta
Κ κ Kappa k ka-pa
Λ λ Lambda l lam-da
Μ μ Mu m m-yoo
Ν ν Nu n noo
Ξ ξ Xi x x-ee
Ο ο Omicron o o-mee-c-ron
Π π Pi p pa-yee
Ρ ρ Rho r row
Σ σ Sigma s sig-ma
Τ τ Tau t ta-oo
Υ υ Upsilon u oo-psi-lon
Φ φ Phi ph f-ee
Χ χ Chi ch kh-ee
Ψ ψ Psi ps p-see
Ω ω Omega o o-me-ga
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List of Numeral symbols

September 18, 2016
List of Numeral symbols

List of numeral symbols in European, Roman, Hindu Arabic and Hebrew

Name

European

Roman

Hindu Arabic

Hebrew

zero

0

٠

one

1

I

١

א

two

2

II

٢

ב

three

3

III

٣

ג

four

4

IV

٤

ד

five

5

V

٥

ה

six

6

VI

٦

ו

seven

7

VII

٧

ז

eight

8

VIII

٨

ח

nine

9

IX

٩

ט

ten

10

X

١٠

י

eleven

11

XI

١١

יא

twelve

12

XII

١٢

יב

thirteen

13

XIII

١٣

יג

fourteen

14

XIV

١٤

יד

fifteen

15

XV

١٥

טו

sixteen

16

XVI

١٦

טז

seventeen

17

XVII

١٧

יז

eighteen

18

XVIII

١٨

יח

nineteen

19

XIX

١٩

יט

twenty

20

XX

٢٠

כ

thirty

30

XXX

٣٠

ל

forty

40

XL

٤٠

מ

fifty

50

L

٥٠

נ

sixty

60

LX

٦٠

ס

seventy

70

LXX

٧٠

ע

eighty

80

LXXX

٨٠

פ

ninety

90

XC

٩٠

צ

one hundred

100

C

١٠٠

ק

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Basic symbols in Mathematics and Statistics

September 18, 2016
Image via Pixabay

Basic math symbols

Symbol
Symbol Name
Meaning / definition
Example
=
equals sign
equality
3 = 1+2
3 is equal to 1+2
not equal sign
inequality
2 ≠ 3
2 is not equal to 2
approximately equal
approximation
sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01,
x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y
> 
strict inequality
greater than
3 > 2
3 is greater than 2
< 
strict inequality
less than
2 < 3
2 is less than 3
inequality
greater than or equal to
5 ≥ 4,
x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y
inequality
less than or equal to
4 ≤ 5,
x ≤ y means x is greater than or equal to y
( )
parentheses
calculate expression inside first
2 × (3+5) = 16
[ ]
brackets
calculate expression inside first
[(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18
+
plus sign
addition
1 + 1 = 2
minus sign
subtraction
2 − 1 = 1
±
plus - minus
both plus and minus operations
3 ± 5 = 8 and -2
minus - plus
both minus and plus operations
3  5 = -2 and 8
*
asterisk
multiplication
2 * 3 = 6
×
times sign
multiplication
2 × 3 = 6
multiplication dot
multiplication
2 3 = 6
÷
division sign / obelus
division
6 ÷ 2 = 3
/
division slash
division
6 / 2 = 3
horizontal line
division / fraction
mod
modulo
remainder calculation
7 mod 2 = 1
.
period
decimal point, decimal separator
2.56 = 2+56/100
ab
power
exponent
2= 8
a^b
caret
exponent
2 ^ 3 = 8
a
square root
a · a  = a
√9 = ±3
3a
cube root
3a · 3√a  · 3√a  = a
3√8 = 2
4a
fourth root
4a · 4√a  · 4√a  · 4√a  = a
4√16 = ±2
na
n-th root (radical)
for n=3, n√8 = 2
%
percent
1% = 1/100
10% × 30 = 3
per-mille
1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%
10‰ × 30 = 0.3
ppm
per-million
1ppm = 1/1000000
10ppm × 30 = 0.0003
ppb
per-billion
1ppb = 1/1000000000
10ppb × 30 = 3×10-7
ppt
per-trillion
1ppt = 10-12
10ppt × 30 = 3×10-10

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