28 January 2017

Installing R for Linux (Ubuntu, Mint, Debian, Fedora)

January 28, 2017
Installing R in Linux

R is an open source programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. It is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's popularity has increased substantially in recent years. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS. 
In this post I will explain you simple steps to instal R in Linux Distros such as Debian and Debian based distros ( Ubuntu, Mint and etc..) , Reh HAt Linux and RHL based distros (Fedora) and Open Suse.

Installing R in Ubuntu / Debian / Linux Mint

1. Open Terminal 
2. In terminal run the following command:
                  sudo apt-get update
        sudo apt-get install r-base r-base-dev
r-base will install R in your system and r-base-dev is for users who need to compile R packages from source.

Installing R in Fedora

1. Open Terminal
2. In terminal run the following command:
                 sudo yum install R
This command will install R that includes 'R-core' and 'R-core-devel'.

In further post I will explain how to install R Studio for Linux users.

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08 January 2017

Why there is a Demand for Money ?

January 08, 2017


There are three motives underlying the demand for money i.e.

  1. Transaction demand for money
  2. Speculative demand for money
  3. Precautionary demand for money

Transaction demand : Transaction demand for money means that money is demanded to carry out certain transactions. It is likely to be positively related with income. This is simply because higher the income of an economic agent, higher is the expected volume of economic transaction. To facilitate higher volume of economic transactions, more money is required. However, the transaction demand for money is influenced by the prevailing rates of interest and the expected rate of return on alternative assets like shares. This is because money held in the form of idle cash provides liquidity and facilitates economic transactions but it does not give a positive return. Therefore, the economic agents will be facing a trade-off between the utility they derive from the liquidity of the available cash and the expected return they are forgoing on alternative assets. So, they will try to economize on their money holding, when the expected returns on alternative assets go up.

Speculative demand :  The demand for money arising out of speculative motive is called speculative demand for money. The speculative demand for money depends on people’s expectation of the future interest rate movements. John Maynard Keynes, in laying out speculative reasons for holding money, stressed the choice between money and bonds. If agents expect the future nominal interest rate (the return on bonds) to be lower than the current rate they will then reduce their holdings of money and increase their holdings of bonds. If the future interest rate does fall, then the price of bonds will increase and the agents will have realized a capital gain on the bonds they purchased. This means that the demand for money in any period will depend on both the current nominal interest rate and the expected future interest rate. The speculative demand for money is low when people expect interest rates to fall in future and vice versa.

Precautionary demand for money : The precautionary demand for money arises because of uncertainty regarding future income. For example, one does not know when one would fall sick or have accident or need money for some unforeseen requirement. The money demanded to cover these expenses is called precautionary demand.


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01 January 2017

Different Components of Money in India

January 01, 2017
Different Components of Money in India - Sulthan Academy
In general, money consists of coins, paper money and withdrawable bank deposits. Bank deposits are part of money supply because one can write cheques on these accounts and the cheque possesses the essential qualities of money. Moreover, increasingly credit cards and electronic cash are becoming an important component of the payment system at least after the demonetization and promotion of cashless India. Continuing financial innovations are causing widening of the definition of money.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) publishes 4 measures of monetary aggregates in India. These measures define money based on progressive liquidity or spendability. 

M1 = Currency held by the public (currency notes and coins) + Demand deposits with the banking system (on current and saving bank accounts) + Other demand deposits with RBI.
M2 = M1 + saving deposits with Post office savings banks.
M3 = M1 + time deposits with the banking system.
M4 = M3 + total deposits with the post office savings organization (excluding National Savings Certificates).

M1 represents the most liquid form of money among the four money stock measures adopted by RBI. As we proceed from M1 to M4, the liquidity gets reduced. In other words, M4 possesses the lowest liquidity among all these measures. The importance of all these four money stock measures varies from the point of view of monetary policy.
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